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Voting Rights Disputes, Court Battles  04/08 06:21

   (AP) -- Wisconsin's chaotic primary may just be the beginning. Both major 
parties are preparing for a monthslong, state-by-state legal fight over how 
citizens can safely cast their ballots should the coronavirus outbreak persist 
through November's election.

   The outcome of the court battles --- expected to litigate mail-in voting 
rules, voter identification requirements and safe access to polls --- may have 
a significant impact on how many people turn out to vote in hundreds of 
elections across the country, including the White House race. It will likely 
play out in presidential battlegrounds amid an already roiling debate over 
voting rights and protecting access to the ballot.

   "We have already seen more litigation, even before COVID, than ever before 
in 2020," said Marc Elias, a prominent attorney who represents the Democratic 
Party on voting issues. "What COVID has done is added fuel to that fire."

   Elias said he expects to file lawsuits within the coming weeks against 
states that Democrats argue haven't taken adequate steps to protect voters and 
poll workers during the outbreak. The party is pushing steps to make it simpler 
to request and return mail-in ballots. 

   Republicans are ready to fight back. President Donald Trump has already 
tried to portray voting by mail as suspicious and warned that it could lead to 
so many people voting that "you'd never have a Republican elected in this 
country again." The Republican National Committee will spend some of the $10 
million it set aside for presidential year election-related litigation to fight 
back against Democratic lawsuits over the virus.

   Tuesday's presidential primary in Wisconsin was a preview of confusion the 
court fights can cause. After Democratic Gov. Tony Evers tried to delay the 
election at the last minute, a court initially postponed and tweaked the rules 
for the contest, only to have the U.S. Supreme Court on Monday night reinstate 
many of the original rules and the election.

   The election went on as planned --- although Milwaukee opened just five of 
its 180 in-person polling places after hundreds of poll workers declined to 
show up. Voters cast ballots while wearing protective masks and stood in long 
lines, trying to keep a safe distance in a state where the virus has killed 92 

   Only five states send ballots to all voters to be returned through the mail. 
Roughly one-third of states require a formal excuse to procure an absentee 
ballot that can be sent in remotely, including the swing state of New 
Hampshire, which has yet to designate the pandemic as a legitimate reason to 
get a mail ballot. Other states crucial to the presidential contest, like 
Wisconsin and North Carolina, require a witness to sign an application for a 
mail ballot --- a requirement that can be difficult to meet for voters in 

   In Texas, the state Democratic Party has filed a lawsuit seeking to allow 
the pandemic to qualify as a legitimate excuse for any voter seeking an 
absentee ballot. The Republican National Committee, meanwhile, helped New 
Mexico Republicans try to stop that state's Supreme Court from allowing a 
request by county clerks to turn their June primary into an all-mail event.

   The party argues that such changes are premature and, in some cases, 

   "Imposing a new system onto states unnecessarily will result in significant 
problems in the November election, and it is critical we work to preserve the 
integrity of the democratic process," said RNC spokeswoman Mandi Merritt.

   The Trump campaign has laid down markers on what sort of changes it expects 
state Republicans to fight. Vote-by-mail options can "play a role during a 
pandemic by enabling at-risk voters to vote safely," legal counsel Justin Clark 
said in a statement. 

   But, Clark added, "states should resist proposals that open the door to 
voting fraud such as mailing ballots to voters who haven't asked for one." 
Notably, some Republican secretaries of state, such as in Iowa and Ohio, have 
already moved to send mail ballots out widely.

   The brewing legal fight comes as Democrats' efforts to mandate no-excuse 
mail-in voting have fizzled in Congress. 

   Senate Republicans prevented measures from making it into the stimulus bill 
passed last month. Democratic leaders said the Wisconsin primary strengthened 
their resolve to try again in the next bill, but voting rights groups are 
pessimistic that will succeed.

   Instead, advocates are trying to secure more funding for local elections 
offices. They got $400 million in the last stimulus but estimate at least $1.6 
billion more would be needed to enable the states to prepare for a radically 
changed voting landscape in November. 

   "Making sure that our elections can be conducted fully and fairly is a very 
high priority for us," Senate Minority Leader Chuck Schumer told reporters 

   Still, voting rights advocates believe more litigation is inevitable as 
parties look closely at vote-by-mail procedures. Elias said Democrats are 
pushing for some standards, including a postage-paid return envelope, counting 
ballots postmarked by Election Day, allowing voters to resolve issues arising 
from questions about a signature and allowing groups to drop off and collect 
mail ballots from voters.

   Democrats argue the latter provision, dubbed "ballot harvesting," is 
essential for elderly voters and others isolated by the pandemic. But it's 
another red line for the Trump campaign. 

   Trump complained Tuesday that Democrats wanted to extend the time for mail 
ballots to come in.

   "Now, mail ballots, they cheat, OK? People cheat. Mail ballots are a very 
dangerous thing for this country," said the president, who requested an 
absentee mail-in-ballot last month for Florida's primary.

   Rick Hasen, an election law professor at the University of 
California-Irvine, said he expects "a lot of litigation, especially in states 
that offer excuse absentee balloting." But, he added, fighting over elections 
was already going to be intense before the outbreak.

   Hasen tracks election litigation and said it soared to a high record in 2018 
--- an unusual mark for a nonpresidential year. "Part of it is 
hyperpolarization," Hasen said. "Part of it is that we have a lot of close 
elections, and people realize that, in really close elections, rules matter."


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